Mixed methods research (MMR) is an approach that combines the qualitative and quantitative methods

Mixed methods research (MMR) is an approach that combines the qualitative and quantitative methods

Mixed methods research (MMR) is an approach that combines the qualitative and quantitative methods for a research study (Burkholder et al., 2019). Some explain it as the center of a continuum between quantitative and qualitative methods. Researchers attempting to explain complex phenomena to impact policy and organizational decisions may choose the MMR approach. When the qualitative and quantitative methods are combined effectively for a mixed methods approach, the result should be synergistic rather than a simple linkage of two different methods.

Researchers should select the methodology that best answers the research question. Some research questions are complex enough to warrant the MMR approach because the quantitative or qualitative alone will not be sufficient (Burkholder et al., 2019). Quantitative methodology aligns with studies that aim to predict, extend knowledge, measure change, or test new ideas. In comparison, qualitative methodology supports studies intended to understand complex phenomena, create new ideas, examine the past, and have a personal or social impact. MMR can accomplish many of these goals.

Quantitative research relies on a statistical analysis of variables to evaluate predictions based on existing theory. Qualitative research focuses more on verbal and visual representations of phenomena. That is, quantitative is more deductive, and qualitative is more inductive. Viewed from the perspective of the investigator’s relationship with the study participants, quantitative is etic, and qualitative is emic (Burkholder et al., 2019).

When a researcher uses the MMR approach to collect data using different methods, the outcome should be increased knowledge than could have been accomplished with only one of the two approaches. MMR is not a single formula; instead, there are six primary types of MMR designs: three sequential (explanatory, exploratory, and transformative) and three concurrent (triangulation, embedded, and transformative) (Orina et al., 2015). Also, designs can vary by whether they give more weight to quantitative or qualitative or give equal importance to both.

A study involving a subject lacking extensive research or established theory may best fit a sequential MMR approach (Orina et al., 2015). The investigator could conduct a qualitative phase initially to gain a depth of understanding of the phenomena and then follow that with a quantitative step using the qualitative results to define appropriate variables. On the other hand, a researcher could study a phenomenon with existing research and theory by starting with a quantitative phase followed by a qualitative phase that will explore any unexpected relationships derived from the quantitative results.

The mixing in an MMR study is not limited to mixing the data collection methods (Orina et al., 2015), and it may also include mixing the research questions, philosophy, and interpretation. Integration of the processes could be approached by connecting, embedding, or merging (Burkholder et al., 2019). Integration at the interpretation level may be through narrative, data transformation, or joint displays. The narrative approach could be one of three techniques: weaving, contiguous, or staged. Also, the transformative process may involve translating qualitative data into a quantitative format or quantitizing. In comparison, the conversion of quantitative data into qualitative format is considered qualitizing (Burkholder et al., 2019).

One example of an MMR approach is an evaluation of the resistance to telemedicine by physicians after the elimination of financial and regulatory barriers. The initial phase of the study could be qualitative to gain insights into the drivers of the resistance. Results from the qualitative phase will provide insights that enable the investigator to create a survey tool and identify variables to measure and expand the population for greater generalizability of the results.

Burkholder, G. J., Cox, K. A., Crawford, L. M., & Hitchcock, J. H. (2019). Research design and methods: An applied guide for the scholar-practitioner (1sted.). SAGE Publications. ISBN: 978-1544342382

Orina, W. A., Mwangi, G. F., Sitati, R. N., & Nyabola, F. (2015). Content analysis and a critical review of the exploratory design in the light of mixed methods research. General Education Journal, 4(2), 32-45.

Response 2.) Eric

In mixed methods research (MMR), scientists gather and assess both qualitative and quantitative information found in the same study. Through this process, researchers are able to comprehend the studied problem better, gain deeper insights, and build more evidence to support their thesis. Some of the examples of mixed methods are embedded, triangulation, and exploratory design methods. One of the purposes of MMR is the necessity to expand and boost the conclusions from the study (Burkholder et al., 2019). This is done by integrating both data collected from qualitative and quantitative techniques with the objective of uncovering details that can answer the research questions (Schoonenboomet et al., 2017). Another purpose of MMR is to increase the knowledge and validity of the study. This is done by putting together different methods in a way that makes the information better and more reliable.

One of the ways MMR differs from other approaches in design is by using various multiple approaches to answer research questions. This is different from other methods that use single methods, which may pose validity challenges. In addition, MMR differs from other methods because it often compensates for the limitations and weaknesses generated by the use of one study method. Furthermore, MMRs are different from other qualitative and quantitative techniques because they provide more useful and deeper insights. Moreover, the integration of several techniques often reduces the time required to collect data when using MMRs compared to other methods. Additionally, they vary from other techniques of design because they contain at least one quantitative and qualitative variable, which aids in conceptualizing descriptive information while quantifying numerical information.

In the analysis of mixed methods in research, it is essential to use techniques that are rooted in qualitative and quantitative systems. For instance, one of the analyses that I would anticipate being performed when reporting the data is simple linear regression analysis. This will involve the mathematical representation of the dependent and independent variables in the study to show how they relate to each other. Moreover, I would expect a hypothesis analysis to be carried out in order to validate the assumptions as well as find out whether the study methods were factually sufficient (Alavi et al., 2018). Another analysis that I would precede with an overall content analysis is It would be essential for the scientists to conduct a qualitative analysis to identify patterns that are within the dataset. The researchers can use this process to determine whether the goal, message, and impact of the findings to be reported are well phrased. I also think that the analysis will be done so that the researchers can come up with theories that can be used to explain the patterns in the data.

Furthermore, one of the periods when MMR would be an appropriate choice is when the research process discloses that the research question cannot be adequately answered by either qualitative or quantitative methods alone. In addition, MMR can be an excellent choice when there is a need to directly compare and contrast numerical statistical outcomes with the qualitative results. Similarly, MMR always becomes an efficient choice for researchers when there is a need to expand and dilate quantitative findings using the data collected quantitatively.

Burkholder, G. J., Cox, K. A., Crawford, L. M., & Hitchcock, J. H. (2019).  and methods: An applied guide for the scholar-practitioner (1st ed.). SAGE Publications. ISBN: 978-1544342382

Alavi, M., Archibald, M., McMaster, R., Lopez, V., & Cleary, M. (2018). Aligning theory and methodology in mixed methods research: Before design theoretical placement. International Journal of Social Research Methodology21(5), 527-540.

Schoonenboom, J., & Johnson, R. B. (2017). How to construct a mixed methods research design. KZfSS Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie69(2), 107-131.

Response 3.) Mary

Luke 6:31 “And as ye would that men should do to you, do ye also to them like wise”. A principle to following Jesus command is that we are to treat others with the same respect that we would want to be treated in return. It is easy to assume that individuals who willingly treat others with respect of some form but sadly Jesus provided that mandate for a reason because He knew that man in all his ways could not consistently abide by the command. It should never be a goal of anyone to set out to offend someone by something that was said or done because that person is not aware of that their approach to communicating is ineffective at best.

In the same sense that we are to do to others what you in return would want done to you. It is the unspoken golden rule that both Christians and non-Christians follow that if embraced can become inspiring, supportive and engaging as a result. There are more opportunities to be a blessing to someone by treating them with respect and dignity than being rude or dismissive of them. Operating in the Spirit is the best way to live a life that is pleasing to God and honoring His mandate for focusing on the good that is produce through people and things. Luke 6:31 Finally, brethren, whatsoever things are true, whatsoever thins are honest, whatsoever things are just, whatsoever things are lovely, whatsoever things are of good report; if there be any virtue, and if there be any praise think on these things.

Philippians 4:8 Rejoicing in the Lord and in His craftsmanship for all that He has done and for the peace He continues to give to the believers. God is the protector of our hearts and He guards our inner most feelings and emotions as we focus on to live our lives to honor and please God. All of the beatitudes that God has created was created for our enjoyment as He is concerned about every aspect of our lives. We are to trust Him and in our service to Him by welcoming and embracing the things that are positive around us. Love is the root to this principle that is rooted in our hearts from God above and His love never fails.

Loving your enemies, treat those who are mistreating us with love and bless those that curse you. This directive was given to the believers as a final directive so they would be reminded how to respond even when it is the negativity of others. We are to do good to others that attempt to persecute and lie to you or about you. Love covers a multitude of sin and by doing good to others is following Christ directive of avoiding retaliation, to be open in our giving to others, and to be in prayer for those who wrongly or despitefully mistreat us. Although the non-believer is responsive to the golden rule of treating others respectfully but given the chance it can produce and blossom into Spirit of fruit as we abide in Him. Our reliance on God permits us to experience His unwavering faithfulness to the believer.


Burkholder, G. J., Cox, K. A., Crawford, L. M., & Hitchcock, J. H. (2019). Research design and

methods: An applied guide for the scholar-practitioner (1st ed.). SAGE Publications.

ISBN: 978-1544342382

Holy Bible

Response 4.) Leslie


People in everyday life use biblical principles. For example, people forgive each other as God has forgiven them. However, they often do not investigate all of the principles of biblical forgiveness and consider the ramifications of their actions before forgiving others. Research is also used in many aspects of day-to-day life. Almost everyone does some research every day. While adults search for cancer treatments, students pursue college prospectuses to find the ideal educational environment for themselves. The Bible supports different ethics and moral principles related to research. In this paper, biblical references are discussed regarding the treatment with research participants.

The Bible and Research

The fact that the Bible contains phrases like ”studying,” ”searching,” ”knowing,” ”thinking,” and ”perceiving” demonstrates that God endorses research. Since God desires that man expand both his intellect and his mental powers. Bible supports that truth is admirable, as stated in Philippians 4:8, ”whatever things are true, whatever things are of a good report.”

Treatment of Participants

Luke 6:31 commands us to ”Do unto others as you would have them do unto you.” This is one of the most important biblical principles that a Christian researcher should keep in mind while considering how to treat research participants ethically in their research. The design of Christian studies, the recruitment of subjects, obtaining informed permission, and gathering data are all guided by this principle. For example, if I were participating in this research, would I want to be handled differently? In such a case, the researcher needs to be guided by the verse in Matthew 22:39, ”love thy neighbor as thyself.” The compassionate Christian researcher will be inspired by these biblical principles to protect the rights of study participants out of love for his neighbor. Both of these ideas come from the Bible and influence research ethics.

  • Freedom: The ethical rules laid forth in the Belmont Report regulate human research. This report extends biblical principles related to the treatment of research participants (Ryan, 2007). People should be treated as if they have their own free will if they are to be respected. In other words, those who take part in research should provide their services voluntarily. In the Bible, God presents man with several alternatives and suggestions, but ultimately it is up to man to decide.
  • Respect: The idea of respect for persons asserts that people with limited autonomy, such as minors, those with intellectual or physical disabilities, and other similarly situated individuals, should be protected, and researchers should make efforts to accommodate these individuals.
  • Beneficence: When referring to study participants, ”beneficence” implies ”no harm.” The beneficence principle encourages researchers to maximize the benefits of their studies while minimizing any potential adverse effects. This idea of being kind and generous fits together with other ideas.
  • Justice: In research ethics, advantages and duties should be fairly divided among the participants, with no group obtaining a disproportionately disproportionate amount of either benefits or obligations. The educated, the less educated, the financially advantaged, and the less healthy should all be recruited for benefit-oriented research.

Why should we adhere to the principles of the Bible?

We hold the belief that the Bible is the inspired Word of God. God reveals himself to us via the reading of His Word. Redemption and the process of restoring God’s image in people are two of the primary focuses of the Bible. Therefore, Bible studies are beneficial to the research process. The Bible is widely recognized as a vital historical record. It tells how God became estranged from the earth and how man became estranged from God. It poses some of the most fundamental issues that may be asked about life. The rational and well-ordered replies provided in the Bible are the life and hope of Christians.


Ryan, V. M. (2007). Belmont Revisited: Ethical Principles for with Human Subjects. Journal of the Society of Christian Ethics27(1), 316–318. https://doi.org/10.5840/jsce200727156Links to an external site.

King James Bible. (2008). Oxford University Press. (Original work published 1769).

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Mixed methods research (MMR) is an approach that combines the qualitative and quantitative methods


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